Skip to main content

Silk Road Notes by Clingendael Institute

After Greece and Portugal, Italy could be the next Southern European country to sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with China on the Belt and Road Initiative. President Xi Jinping will visit Italy on March 22-24, and according to Reuters the two countries are negotiating the terms of a possible MoU [Italy mulls preliminary Belt and Road deal with China]. Although less sensitive than cooperation on advanced technology, such as 5G, AI or semiconductors, third country involvement in BRI is increasingly also an issue in US-China relations. In the case of Italy’s talks with China on signing an MoU, the US government warned Italy against doing so [China tells US to mind its own business after Italy is warned not to join Belt and Road Initiative].

According to Zhang Yesui, a spokesman for China’s National People’s Congress, a total of 157 countries and international organisations have already signed BRI agreements [China defends belt and road strategy against debt trap claims]. He did not specify how many of these are countries, but the internet portal for BRI of the Chinese government lists 129 countries that have signed some type of cooperation agreement which China on BRI. It is possible that this list includes not just countries which have signed a formal MoU, but also those which produced joint statements on BRI and/or cooperation agreements on specific projects that China regards as part of BRI. Still, many national governments seem to have endorsed China’s BRI. Two aspects matter here. First, what exactly did these governments sign? How often was this a standard text prepared by China, and in how many instances was it a document that combined views and expressions from both sides? And second, what did they get, or aimed to get, in return from China?

Although most memoranda of understanding probably are non-binding statements that mean little to China’s counterparts, they are highly valued by the Chinese government. Individually each MoU may be of relatively little consequence. But together these statements strengthen the legitimacy of the Belt and Road Initiative, and thereby they contribute to the legitimacy of China as a global leader in economic affairs.

Frans-Paul van der Putten


Popular posts from this blog

SSG Commando Muddassir Iqbal of Pakistan Army

“ Commando Muddassir Iqbal was part of the team who conducted Army Public School operation on 16 December 2014. In this video he reveals that he along with other commandos was ordered to kill the innocent children inside school, when asked why should they kill children after killing all the terrorist he was told that it would be a chance to defame Taliban and get nation on the side. He and all other commandos killed children and later Taliban was blamed. Muddassir Iqbal has deserted the military and now he is  with mujahedeen somewhere in AF PAK border area” For authenticity of  this tape journalists can easy reach to his home town to interview his family members or   ISPR as he reveals his army service number” Asalam o Alaikum: My name is Muddassir Iqbal. My father’s name is Naimat Ali. I belong to Sialkot divison (Punjab province), my village is Shamsher Poor and district, tehsil and post office  Narowal. Unfortunately I was working in Pakistan army. I feel embarrassed to tell yo

CPEC Jobs in Pakistan, salary details

JOBS...نوکریاں چائنہ کمپنی میں Please help the deserving persons... Salary: Salary package in China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) in these 300,000 jobs shall be on daily wages. The details of the daily wages are as follows; Welder: Rs. 1,700 daily Heavy Duty Driver: Rs. 1,700 daily Mason: Rs. 1,500 daily Helper: Rs. 850 daily Electrician: Rs. 1,700 daily Surveyor: Rs. 2,500 daily Security Guard: Rs. 1,600 daily Bulldozer operator: Rs. 2,200 daily Concrete mixer machine operator: Rs. 2,000 daily Roller operator: Rs. 2,000 daily Steel fixer: Rs. 2,200 daily Iron Shuttering fixer: Rs. 1,800 daily Account clerk: Rs. 2,200 daily Carpenter: Rs. 1,700 daily Light duty driver: Rs. 1,700 daily Labour: Rs. 900 daily Para Engine mechanic: Rs. 1,700 daily Pipe fitter: Rs. 1,700 daily Storekeeper: Rs. 1,700 daily Office boy: Rs. 1,200 daily Excavator operator: Rs. 2,200 daily Shovel operator: Rs. 2,200 daily Computer operator: Rs. 2,200 daily Security Supervisor: Rs.

A ‘European Silk Road’

publication_icon Philipp Heimberger ,  Mario Holzner and Artem Kochnev wiiw Research Report No. 430, August 2018  43 pages including 10 Tables and 17 Figures FREE DOWNLOAD The German version can be found  here . In this study we argue for a ‘Big Push’ in infrastructure investments in greater Europe. We propose the building of a European Silk Road, which connects the industrial centres in the west with the populous, but less developed regions in the east of the continent and thereby is meant to generate more growth and employment in the short term as well as in the medium and long term. After its completion, the European Silk Road would extend overland around 11,000 kilometres on a northern route from Lisbon to Uralsk on the Russian-Kazakh border and on a southern route from Milan to Volgograd and Baku. Central parts are the route from Lyon to Moscow in the north and from Milan to Constanţa in the south. The southern route would link Central Europe with the Black Sea area and