Skip to main content

Silk Road Notes by Clingendael Institute

After Greece and Portugal, Italy could be the next Southern European country to sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with China on the Belt and Road Initiative. President Xi Jinping will visit Italy on March 22-24, and according to Reuters the two countries are negotiating the terms of a possible MoU [Italy mulls preliminary Belt and Road deal with China]. Although less sensitive than cooperation on advanced technology, such as 5G, AI or semiconductors, third country involvement in BRI is increasingly also an issue in US-China relations. In the case of Italy’s talks with China on signing an MoU, the US government warned Italy against doing so [China tells US to mind its own business after Italy is warned not to join Belt and Road Initiative].

According to Zhang Yesui, a spokesman for China’s National People’s Congress, a total of 157 countries and international organisations have already signed BRI agreements [China defends belt and road strategy against debt trap claims]. He did not specify how many of these are countries, but the internet portal for BRI of the Chinese government lists 129 countries that have signed some type of cooperation agreement which China on BRI. It is possible that this list includes not just countries which have signed a formal MoU, but also those which produced joint statements on BRI and/or cooperation agreements on specific projects that China regards as part of BRI. Still, many national governments seem to have endorsed China’s BRI. Two aspects matter here. First, what exactly did these governments sign? How often was this a standard text prepared by China, and in how many instances was it a document that combined views and expressions from both sides? And second, what did they get, or aimed to get, in return from China?

Although most memoranda of understanding probably are non-binding statements that mean little to China’s counterparts, they are highly valued by the Chinese government. Individually each MoU may be of relatively little consequence. But together these statements strengthen the legitimacy of the Belt and Road Initiative, and thereby they contribute to the legitimacy of China as a global leader in economic affairs.

Frans-Paul van der Putten

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

SSG Commando Muddassir Iqbal of Pakistan Army

“ Commando Muddassir Iqbal was part of the team who conducted Army Public School operation on 16 December 2014. In this video he reveals that he along with other commandos was ordered to kill the innocent children inside school, when asked why should they kill children after killing all the terrorist he was told that it would be a chance to defame Taliban and get nation on the side. He and all other commandos killed children and later Taliban was blamed.
Muddassir Iqbal has deserted the military and now he is  with mujahedeen somewhere in AF PAK border area”
For authenticity of  this tape journalists can easy reach to his home town to interview his family members or   ISPR as he reveals his army service number”
Asalam o Alaikum: My name is Muddassir Iqbal. My father’s name is Naimat Ali. I belong to Sialkot divison (Punjab province), my village is Shamsher Poor and district, tehsil and post office  Narowal. Unfortunately I was working in Pakistan army. I feel embarrassed to tell you …

The Rise of China-Europe Railways

https://www.csis.org/analysis/rise-china-europe-railways

The Rise of China-Europe RailwaysMarch 6, 2018The Dawn of a New Commercial Era?For over two millennia, technology and politics have shaped trade across the Eurasian supercontinent. The compass and domesticated camels helped the “silk routes” emerge between 200 and 400 CE, and peaceful interactions between the Han and Hellenic empires allowed overland trade to flourish. A major shift occurred in the late fifteenth century, when the invention of large ocean-going vessels and new navigation methods made maritime trade more competitive. Mercantilism and competition among Europe’s colonial powers helped pull commerce to the coastlines. Since then, commerce between Asia and Europe has traveled primarily by sea.1Against this historical backdrop, new railway services between China and Europe have emerged rapidly. Just 10 years ago, regular direct freight services from China to Europe did not exist.2 Today, they connect roughly 35 Chinese…

CPEC Jobs in Pakistan, salary details

JOBS...نوکریاں چائنہ کمپنی میںPlease help the deserving persons...Salary:Salary package in China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) in these 300,000 jobs shall be on daily wages. The details of the daily wages are as follows;Welder: Rs. 1,700 dailyHeavy Duty Driver: Rs. 1,700 dailyMason: Rs. 1,500 dailyHelper: Rs. 850 dailyElectrician: Rs. 1,700 dailySurveyor: Rs. 2,500 dailySecurity Guard: Rs. 1,600 dailyBulldozer operator: Rs. 2,200 dailyConcrete mixer machine operator: Rs. 2,000 dailyRoller operator: Rs. 2,000 dailySteel fixer: Rs. 2,200 dailyIron Shuttering fixer: Rs. 1,800 dailyAccount clerk: Rs. 2,200 dailyCarpenter: Rs. 1,700 dailyLight duty driver: Rs. 1,700 dailyLabour: Rs. 900 dailyPara Engine mechanic: Rs. 1,700 dailyPipe fitter: Rs. 1,700 dailyStorekeeper: Rs. 1,700 dailyOffice boy: Rs. 1,200 dailyExcavator operator: Rs. 2,200 dailyShovel operator: Rs. 2,200 dailyComputer operator: Rs. 2,200 dailySecurity Supervisor: Rs. 2,200 dailyCook for Chinese food: Rs. 2,000 dailyCook…