. Dr.Hani Baloch
The British policies in post World War- 2 in this region were to protect Middle East oil wells from Russia (USSR) are called: “The British Great Game” that time. Now after revealing some secret British documents, it became clear that partition of India and occupation of Balochistan were part of that Great Game. Here two documents are mentioned in detail as to surface the facts and truth, and also expose that, the division of India was not a demand of Muslims of India and Pakistan is not a “Gift of God” to Muslims of India for “Islami-Nizam” (Islamic System) and that it is not a ‘Fort for Islam’ its ‘atomic bomb’ is also not a gift of God for Islamic World. Actually it was British who created Pakistan to deter Russian south ward march. Later they made a protection wall from Pakistan to Turkey in form of CENTO to defend these oil wells.
Foreign Policy Centre, a London based European think tank, launched under patronage of that time British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, in its pamphlet, “Balochis Of Pakistan: On the Margin of History” in December 2006, admits the partition of India and occupation of Balochistan were in British interest. It states: “On 15th August 1947 Khan of Kalat declared independence of Balochistan, both Houses of Assembly unanimously endorsed the decision and rejected accession with Pakistan. The Muslim League had acknowledged the independence of Kalat as late as August 1847, despite all this on 1st April 1948 Pakistan Army invaded Kalat. Why this sudden turn-around? It was British advice that led to forcible accession of Kalat into Pakistan in 1948. Initially British favored honoring their commitment under 1876 treaty regarding Kalat independence based upon the prospects of using an independent Balochistan as base for the activities in the region, since it was not formally a part of India. However, by 1946 when it was decided to partition India the British felt that instead of locating a base in a weak Balochistan, such a base could be established in Pakistan which was more than willing to accommodate the British. ( Pakistan inherited more than 50% of British Indian Army). Hence, it was British interests to ensure that Balochistan was kept with in Pakistan.” It further states that," it was also in British interest that, Baloch areas were gifted, to Iran, 'western Makran and Sarhad’ and Afghanistan, 'outer Seistan and Registrant, in a bid to placate the rulers of these countries and befriend them in apprehension of an attack from Russia. For Baloch, the validity of boundaries with both countries is doubtful, as neither ‘Khan nor people of the area were consulted at the time of demarcation, in 1904."
Beside this Narendra Singh Sarilain, in his book, ‘The Untold Story of Indian Partition’ on page: 15 writes that “The partition of India was announced in Delhi on 3rd June 1947, the following week British Foreign secretary ‘Bevin, addressing British Labor Party annual conference, declared that, “the division of India would help to consolidate Britain in Middle East.”It shows British cold blooded policies and decisions which it took in the region by dividing India and occupation of Balochistan.
In 1933 with the support of Baloch nationalists Khan Mir Ahmad Yar Khan became ‘Khan of Kalat’. He was a young and educated man. He chose Mohammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan, as his legal advisor for return of, Quetta, Noshki and other leased and tribal areas after British withdrawal. A memorandum prepared by Sir Sultan Ahmad and Sirdar D. K. Sen. and presented by Jinnah to Cabinet Mission in 1946, claimed that, ‘Kalat Balochistan is a non-Indian State, and Kalat Government is anxious to have friendly relations on reciprocity and recognition of its independence with any Government/ Governments in India that succeed British Government. The leased areas Quetta, Noshki, Bolan, and Marri, Bugti tribal areas, kharan and las- Bella will revert to Kalat after end of British paramountcy.” (Problems of Greater Balochistan, page: 220 by Inayat-ullah Baloch).
To decide the future of Balochistan a meeting was held on 4th August 1947 in Delhi, attended by Lord Mount Baton, Crown’s representative, Mohammad Ali Jinnah future Governor General of Pakistan, Mir Ahmad Yar Khan of Kalat, Sir Sultan Ahmad, Khan’s legal advisor. The fallowing was decided: (1) Government Pakistan recognizes Kalat as independent and sovereign, non-Indian state. (2) Legal opinion will be sought, as to, whether or not agreements of leases between Kalat and British Governments will be inherited to Pakistan. (3) In the meantime, a Standstill agreement will be made between Pakistan and Kalat. (4) For defense, Communication and foreign affairs discussions between Pakistan and Kalat will take place soon in Karachi. (Back to Future: page, 225, by Martin Exmann). In Article 3, British paramountcy is seems being transfer to Pakistan, it was a violation of Indian partition Act-June 1947, which says, ‘’British paramountcy is not transferable”.
This agreement was announced in Delhi on 11th August 1947, and All India Radio broad cast it on the same day. The following day New York Time published this news with world map showing Balochistan as independent state. On 15th August Mir Ahmad Yar Khan announced independence of Balochistan at Kalat, National flag was hosted, he addressed his audience in Balochi language and said, “My aim is to unite all parts of Balochistan and achieve complete independence. British gave Balochistan a new name, ‘Kalat State' Kalat is only capital of Balochistan”.
Khan Mir Ahmad Yar Khan promulgated a written constitution, under a Farman, (Royal Order) that provided bicameral legislative body, the Upper House, or Darul-Umra, comprised chiefs of tribes, had 46 members, 10 selected by Khan and the Lower House or Darul-Awam, constituted 55 members 50 elected and 5 nominated by Khan including special seats for Hindus and businessmen in both Houses. Soon elections were held. In lower house Kalat State National Party won 39 seats out of 50, it was a great victory for democratic and secular forces. Khan summoned Upper and Lower House sessions respectively on 12th December 1947 and 4th January 1948 at Dhader, the winter capital, to discuss: (I) Relations with Pakistan (ii) National language (iii) Shariah (Islamic Laws). Both Houses decided unanimously that relation with Pakistan should be established as between two sovereign states, Balochi as national language and for time being ‘Riwage’ (traditions) should continue. In Darul-Awam leader of the House Mir Ghaose Baksh Bazinjo addressing the House, and told that, “We have a distinct civilization and culture as Iran and Afghanistan, we are Muslim but it is not necessary that by virtue of our being Muslim we should lose our freedom and merge with other. If the mere fact that we are Muslim requires us to join Pakistan then Afghanistan and Iran both Muslim countries should amalgamate with Pakistan. If we are forced to accept this fate then every Baloch son will sacrifice his life in defense of his national freedom”. (Back to Future: page=230)
But on 12th September 1947, British Government repeated its warning to Pakistan, through their High Commission in Karachi of the danger of recognizing Balochistan a separate international entity, which finally led to occupation of Balochistan by Pakistan Army. Here is an extract of that British secret memorandum dated 12th September 1947: “Pakistan has entered into negotiations with Kalat on the basis of recognizing the State’s claim to independence and of treating the previous agreements between the Crown and Kalat providing for the leas of Quetta and other areas, which would otherwise lapse under section 7(1)(6) of Indian independence Act, as international agreements untouched by termination of paramountcy. The Khan of Kalat whose territory marches with Persia is of course in no position to undertake the international responsibilities of an independent state, and Lord Mountbatten who before the transfer of power was warned of the danger of such a development, doubtless passed on this warning to Pakistan Government. The United Kingdom High Commissioner in Pakistan is being informed of the position and asked to do what he can to guide Pakistan Government away from making agreement with Kalat which would involve recognition of the State as separate international entity”. (The Problem of ‘Greater Balochistan’ By Inayat-ullah Baloch. page 257).
After this British advice Pakistan followed an expansionist and aggressive policy toward Balochistan and refused further negotiations with ‘Khan’ and started demanding unconditional accession into Pakistan. Now Khan worried about defense of Balochistan, he sent Mr. Fell, Foreign Minister of Kalat and an army officer to London for help and some better solution and for purchase of weapons. Britain refused for any help and conditioned Pakistan's approval for supply of weapons. Pakistan continued building up pressure on Khan, but Khan was resilient and refused merger.
On 17th March 1948 Pakistan announced merger of 2 subordinate states, Las Bella, Kharan and one province of Khanate, Makran. Before merger the status of Makran was raised to a State and Bai Khan, a local chief, as head of state by Pakistan. It was an illegal and unconstitutional act by Pakistan, as on 6th July 1947 when Jam of Las- Bella wrote a letter to AGG in Quetta requesting to recognize Las Bella as independent state, AGG on 15thJuly 1947 informed him and chief of Kharan, as he was also not satisfied with his status, that “both are subordinate rulers of Khanate, in case of disobedience Khan is entitled to establish his authority by all means”. (Tareekh-e-khwaneen-e-Baloch: page 171, Khan Ahmad Yar Khan). There were protests throughout Balochistan against this illegal act; all roads to Makran were blocked by people. Prince Abdul Karim, younger brother of Khan and Governor of Makran province refused to accept this merger with Pakistan.
🔴To deter Khan and Prince Abdul Karim and to avoid accession to become world news, AGG Balochistan in Quetta, Sir Ambrose Dundas on 24th March 1948 suggested Govt. of Pakistan to use force. On 26th March 1948 Prime Minister of Pakistan, three Services Chiefs, AGG Balochistan and Secretary Defense met in Karachi and decided to use force. Army Chief General Gracey agreed to send a full brigade to Makran and Kalat. From Karachi troops moved to Makran, Turbat, Pasni and Jewani by road, sea and by air and from Quetta, Let. Col. Gulzad moved with troops and attacked Kalat. (Back to Future, page: 243, by Martin Axmann). After this show of force AGG in Quetta appointed Major H.A.Arthington Davy as Assistant Political Agent Makran with full powers and instructions.
Now Khan had only 2 options, either to leave palace and fight a defensive war against Pakistan army or accept the demand of accession. First option was opposed by Mr. Fell, Foreign Minister of Khanate on the ground that it provides a chance to Russia (USSR) to influence Baloch population, although this option was supported by Prince Abdul Karim, Prince Ibrahim and Baloch nationalists. In above circumstances, Khan Ahmad Yar Khan under extreme pressure signed the accession papers on 27th April 1948. Khan admits in his autobiography, “Inside Balochistan” that he violated his mandate by signing accession papers, ignoring Upper and Lower House decision. On 15th April 1948 Pakistan took complete charge of Kalat, Khan status was reverted to what it was British time, his Ministers were arrested, both Upper and Lower Houses were dismissed, Kalat State National party was banned, its leaders were arrested, a Political Agent and Wazir were appointed in Kalat for administration, now again Khan was without powers.
The first Baloch liberation struggle against Pakistan was led by Prince Abdul Karim, younger brother of ‘Khan’ and last Governor of Makran province. He was joined by Mohammad Hussain Anka, secretary of Baloch league and editor weekly Bolan, Malik Saeed Dehwar secretary Kalat State National Party, Quader Baksh Nizamani a leader of Communist Party Balochistan and Molvi Mohammad Afzal from Jami at- Ulma-e-Balochistan. They crossed the border on 16th May 1948 and went to Sarlath, in Afghanistan. They contacted Afghanistan, Iran and Russia (USSR) for support and wrote letters to Baloch Sardars, to join the struggle for Balochistan liberation. Molvi Mohammad Afzal issued a ‘Fatwa’ (a religious order) against Muslim League leadership, declaring Jinnah a Khoja’ non-Muslim, who eat pork- meat and drink wine, Liaqat Ali and Nishtar as non-believer and Sir Zafrullah a ‘Qadiani’ who are non-Muslim. Prince wrote a lengthy letter to ‘Khan’ on 28th June 1948, explaining him the causes of his revolt, he wrote, “I see nothing but Punjabi fascism and its army that rules, there is no place for other communities like, Pashtun, Sindhi and Bengalis in Pakistan. For its survival Pakistan will be in service of imperialist powers”. As Prince failed to get any support, he returned to Balochistan. After sometime an agreement reached with Mr. Fell and Prime Minister Kalat on his demands and safe conduct. The agreement was dishonored by Pakistan Govt. and they were ambushed and arrested, rejecting local Jirga (a committee of elders) decision to exile Prince, all (about 300) were given various sentences by District Magistrate Quetta, a British Officer. Prince was given 10-year rigorous imprisonment and Rs: 5000 fine. 🔴The forceful occupation of Balochistan and crushing Baloch resistance was planned and conducted under close supervision of British officers.
The present Baloch liberation struggle is 5th one, started from 2000. Pakistan army adopted scorched earth policy in Balochistan. Army is also using armed religious extremist's organizations against Baloch nationalist. About 20 thousand political workers and youth were kidnapped, their mutilated bodies are regularly being thrown in streets, and many mass graves were discovered in Balochistan. The free world, NGOs and Human rights Organizations closed their eyes from Balochistan issue, mostly due to Afghan war and some due to their Government policies, beside this Baloch pro-liberation parties are badly divided.